China May Implement Crypto Licenses

The Study of Development and Regulations on Distributed Ledger Accounts, Blockchain and Digital Currency" and authored by researchers from the CBRC
28 June 2018   1167

The China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC) is in favor of introducing licensing of cryptocurrency activities. This is reported by CoinDesk.

According to the CBRC, any capital transactions that are linked to accounts in the distributed ledger, blockchain, cryptocurrencies, derivatives, ICO and stock transactions should be considered as financial services.

Currently, any capital transaction that relates to distributed ledger accounts, blockchain, cryptocurrency and its derivatives, ICOs and exchange operations should all be regarded as financial services. Therefore they must be put under relevant financial regulatory frameworks so that they can operate legally with a license.
 

Research Paper

The regulator believes that not only the crypto platforms and ICO-projects are the subjects to licensing. Requirements should be presented to any services that are associated with transactions in the blockchain.

Until this moment the Chinese regulators did not mention the topic of licensing of the cryptocurrency business.

Potentional Vulnerabilities Found in ETH 2.0

Least Authority have found potentional security issues in the network P2P interaction and block proposal system
26 March 2020   964

Technology security firm Least Authority, at the request of the Ethereum Foundation, conducted an audit of the Ethereum 2.0 specifications and identified several potential vulnerabilities at once.

Least Authority said that developers need to solve problems with vulnerabilities in the network layer of peer-to-peer (P2P) interaction, as well as in the block proposal system. At the same time, the auditor noted that the specifications are "very well thought out and competent."

However, at the moment there is no large ecosystem based on PoS and using sharding in the world, so it is impossible to accurately assess the prospects for system stability.
Also, information security experts emphasized that the specifications did not pay enough attention to the description of the P2P network level and the system of records about Ethereum nodes. Vulnerability risks are also observed in the block proposal system and the messaging system between nodes.

Experts said that in the blockchains running on PoS, the choice of a new block is simple and no one can predict who will get the new block. In PoS systems, it is the block proposal system that decides whose block will fall into the blockchain, and this leads to the risk of data leakage. To solve the problem, auditors suggested using the mechanism of "Single Secret Leader Election" (SSLE).

As for the peer-to-peer exchange system, there is a danger of spam. There is no centralized node in the system that would evaluate the actions of other nodes, so a “malicious" node can spam the entire network with various messages without any special punishment. The solution to this problem may be to use special protocols for exchanging messages between nodes.