Cuba Wants to Bypass Sanctions With Crypto

Financial minister says cryptocurrencies are considered only as one of the components of a broad plan to improve the economy and raise the standard of living
04 July 2019   1878

Cuban authorities are exploring the possibility of cryptocurrency to bypass US sanctions and mitigate the effects of the economic crisis, reports Reuters.

We are studying the potential use of cryptocurrency ... in our national and international commercial transactions, and we are working on that together with academics.

Alejandro Gil Fernandez

Economy Minister, Cuba

However, according to the official, cryptocurrencies are considered only as one of the components of a broad plan to improve the economy and raise the standard of living.
The complex of government measures includes improving the efficiency of state-owned companies, stimulating local production, import substitution, increasing exports, currency liberalization, etc.

American sanctions and the cessation of support from Venezuela had a strong impact on Cuba’s economy, lowering the already low standard of living of the population. Depending on the industry, at present the average salary of a local worker is equivalent to 25-40 US dollars. There is a shortage of some food products in the country, which is why the authorities have imposed restrictions on the purchase of various goods.

The release of currency El Petro did not really help Venezuela to cope with the acute socio-economic crisis, accompanied by record hyperinflation.

Potentional Vulnerabilities Found in ETH 2.0

Least Authority have found potentional security issues in the network P2P interaction and block proposal system
26 March 2020   903

Technology security firm Least Authority, at the request of the Ethereum Foundation, conducted an audit of the Ethereum 2.0 specifications and identified several potential vulnerabilities at once.

Least Authority said that developers need to solve problems with vulnerabilities in the network layer of peer-to-peer (P2P) interaction, as well as in the block proposal system. At the same time, the auditor noted that the specifications are "very well thought out and competent."

However, at the moment there is no large ecosystem based on PoS and using sharding in the world, so it is impossible to accurately assess the prospects for system stability.
Also, information security experts emphasized that the specifications did not pay enough attention to the description of the P2P network level and the system of records about Ethereum nodes. Vulnerability risks are also observed in the block proposal system and the messaging system between nodes.

Experts said that in the blockchains running on PoS, the choice of a new block is simple and no one can predict who will get the new block. In PoS systems, it is the block proposal system that decides whose block will fall into the blockchain, and this leads to the risk of data leakage. To solve the problem, auditors suggested using the mechanism of "Single Secret Leader Election" (SSLE).

As for the peer-to-peer exchange system, there is a danger of spam. There is no centralized node in the system that would evaluate the actions of other nodes, so a “malicious" node can spam the entire network with various messages without any special punishment. The solution to this problem may be to use special protocols for exchanging messages between nodes.