How to convert an InputStream to a String in Java?

11 ways to popular Java issue (with code examples)
15 August 2017   3032

For example, if you have object, what should you do to process that object and produce a String?

We've made a research and found 11 ways to solve this task.

  1. With IOUtils.toString (Apache Utils)

    String result = IOUtils.toString(inputStream, StandardCharsets.UTF_8);
  2. With CharStreams (guava)

    String result = CharStreams.toString(new InputStreamReader(
          inputStream, Charsets.UTF_8));
  3. Using Scanner (JDK)

    Scanner s = new Scanner(inputStream).useDelimiter("\\A");
    String result = s.hasNext() ? : "";
  4. With Stream Api (Java 8).
    Warning: This solution convert different line breaks (like \r\n) to \n.

    String result = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(inputStream))
  5. With parallel Stream Api (Java 8). 
    Warning: This solution convert different line breaks (like \r\n) to \n.

    String result = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(inputStream)).lines()
  6. Using InputStreamReader and StringBuilder (JDK)

    final int bufferSize = 1024;
    final char[] buffer = new char[bufferSize];
    final StringBuilder out = new StringBuilder();
    Reader in = new InputStreamReader(inputStream, "UTF-8");
    for (; ; ) {
        int rsz =, 0, buffer.length);
        if (rsz < 0)
        out.append(buffer, 0, rsz);
    return out.toString();
  7. Using StringWriter and IOUtils.copy (Apache Commons)

    StringWriter writer = new StringWriter();
    IOUtils.copy(inputStream, writer, "UTF-8");
    return writer.toString();
  8. Using ByteArrayOutputStream and (JDK) (solution with the best performance).

    ByteArrayOutputStream result = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
    byte[] buffer = new byte[1024];
    int length;
    while ((length = != -1) {
        result.write(buffer, 0, length);
    // > JDK 7
    return result.toString("UTF-8");
  9. Using BufferedReader (JDK). Warning: This solution convert different line breaks (like \n\r) to line.separator system property (for example, in Windows to "\r\n").

    String newLine = System.getProperty("line.separator");
    BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(inputStream));
    StringBuilder result = new StringBuilder();
    String line; boolean flag = false;
    while ((line = reader.readLine()) != null) {
        result.append(flag? newLine: "").append(line);
        flag = true;
    return result.toString();
  10. Using BufferedInputStream and ByteArrayOutputStream (JDK)

    BufferedInputStream bis = new BufferedInputStream(inputStream);
    ByteArrayOutputStream buf = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
    int result =;
    while(result != -1) {
        buf.write((byte) result);
        result =;
    // > JDK 7
    return buf.toString("UTF-8");
  11. Using and StringBuilder (JDK). Warning: This solution has problem with Unicode, for example with Russian text (work correctly only with non-Unicode text)

    int ch;
    StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
    while((ch = != -1)
    return sb.toString();


Sonatype to Create Vulnerability Checker Tool

New tool is called DepShield and available in the "Security" section of the GitHub Marketplace
16 August 2018   110

Sonatype has introduced a tool for developers called DepShield, which checks the code on GitHub for vulnerabilities.

The free version of the service is looking for vulnerabilities in the OSS Index database and gives recommendations on how to fix them. In the commercial version, you can configure automatic fixing of problems. Also in DepShield there are:

  • work with the Apache Maven framework;
  • View a list of known vulnerabilities in GitHub's Issue Tracker;
  • determine the range of versions for each vulnerability.


DepShield is available in the "Security" section of the GitHub Marketplace.

GitHub has introduced two new features that will help improve security and simplify the recovery of accounts. For this, the company recommends setting a strong password and two-factor authentication.