Russia will legitimize ICO and cryptocurrency

President Vladimir Putin gave instructions to the government to make amendments to legislation that legitimize cryptocurrency
24 October 2017   1141

The statements concerning future policy towards cryptocurrency in Russia appeared on October 21 on the official website of Kremlin.

The orders made by President of Russia Vladimir Putin are concerned with new legal regulations which will be applied to cryptocurrency in Russia. The instructions aim at establishing a plan to use cryptocurrency technology to create a unitary payment space with the Eurasian Economic Union, and making a special system for cryptocurrency miners to register and pay taxes on a profit they make.

Moreover, the instructions mention creation so-called "sandbox", which will allow companies to test products under limited conditions.

The Government of the Russian Federation, in conjunction with the Bank of Russia, shall ensure that changes are made to the legislation of the Russian Federation providing for...[the] determination of the status of digital technologies used in the financial sphere and their concepts (including such as "technology of distributed registries", "digital letters of credit", "digital mortgage", "crypto-currency", "token", "smart contract") based on the obligation of the ruble as the only legal tender in the Russian Federation.
 

Official list of instructions on the use of digital technologies in the financial area

All the instructions should be put through by the government and Central Bank by July 1, 2018.

Potentional Vulnerabilities Found in ETH 2.0

Least Authority have found potentional security issues in the network P2P interaction and block proposal system
26 March 2020   964

Technology security firm Least Authority, at the request of the Ethereum Foundation, conducted an audit of the Ethereum 2.0 specifications and identified several potential vulnerabilities at once.

Least Authority said that developers need to solve problems with vulnerabilities in the network layer of peer-to-peer (P2P) interaction, as well as in the block proposal system. At the same time, the auditor noted that the specifications are "very well thought out and competent."

However, at the moment there is no large ecosystem based on PoS and using sharding in the world, so it is impossible to accurately assess the prospects for system stability.
Also, information security experts emphasized that the specifications did not pay enough attention to the description of the P2P network level and the system of records about Ethereum nodes. Vulnerability risks are also observed in the block proposal system and the messaging system between nodes.

Experts said that in the blockchains running on PoS, the choice of a new block is simple and no one can predict who will get the new block. In PoS systems, it is the block proposal system that decides whose block will fall into the blockchain, and this leads to the risk of data leakage. To solve the problem, auditors suggested using the mechanism of "Single Secret Leader Election" (SSLE).

As for the peer-to-peer exchange system, there is a danger of spam. There is no centralized node in the system that would evaluate the actions of other nodes, so a “malicious" node can spam the entire network with various messages without any special punishment. The solution to this problem may be to use special protocols for exchanging messages between nodes.