What is Angle?

Overview of conformant OpenGL ES implementation for Windows, Mac and Linux, developed by Google
27 October 2017   575

What is Angle?

ANGLE stands for Almost Native Graphics Layer Engine. The goal of ANGLE is to allow users of multiple operating systems to seamlessly run WebGL and other OpenGL ES content by translating OpenGL ES API calls to one of the hardware-supported APIs available for that platform. ANGLE currently provides translation from OpenGL ES 2.0 and 3.0 to desktop OpenGL, OpenGL ES, Direct3D 9, and Direct3D 11. Support for translation from OpenGL ES to Vulkan is underway, and future plans include compute shader support (ES 3.1) and MacOS support.

ANGLE v1.0.772 was certified compliant by passing the ES 2.0.3 conformance tests in October 2011. ANGLE also provides an implementation of the EGL 1.4 specification.

ANGLE is used as the default WebGL backend for both Google Chrome and Mozilla Firefox on Windows platforms. Chrome uses ANGLE for all graphics rendering on Windows, including the accelerated Canvas2D implementation and the Native Client sandbox environment.

Portions of the ANGLE shader compiler are used as a shader validator and translator by WebGL implementations across multiple platforms. It is used on Mac OS X, Linux, and in mobile variants of the browsers. Having one shader validator helps to ensure that a consistent set of GLSL ES shaders are accepted across browsers and platforms. The shader translator can be used to translate shaders to other shading languages, and to optionally apply shader modifications to work around bugs or quirks in the native graphics drivers. The translator targets Desktop GLSL, Direct3D HLSL, and even ESSL for native GLES2 platforms.


If you are interested, you can learn more at:

  • Website
  • GitHub

Canonical to Represent Minimal Ubuntu

New version of Ubuntu is created for servers, isolated containers based on Docker and cloud systems
12 July 2018   107

Ubuntu team presented a simplified version of the base image - Minimal Ubuntu. It is designed for servers, isolated containers based on Docker and cloud systems. The release features high performance, minimal load time and automation of applications in the cloud.

The small footprint of Minimal Ubuntu, when deployed with fast VM provisioning from GCE, helps deliver drastically improved boot times, making them a great choice for developers looking to build their applications on Google Cloud Platform.

Paul Nash

Group Product Manager, Google Cloud

The authors of the project emphasize the size of the distribution kit, which "weighs" 157 MB, and also supports the main cloud systems like Amazon EC2, Google Compute Engine (GCE), LXD and KVM / OpenStack, each of which has its own optimized version of the package. In addition, the OS-based image for operating with containers based on the Docker platform, compatible with the Kubernetes.

Minimal Ubuntu is designed for automated execution, so it includes only a minimal set of tools. The distribution can be upgraded to a set of Ubuntu Server packages using the special utility "unminimize", which returns components that are convenient for interactive management.

According to Canonical representatives, the deletion of the manual control functions resulted in the acceleration of the load time by 40% and the reduction of the occupied disk space by 50%. At the same time, this release remained completely compatible with all the packages from standard Ubuntu repositories. Required packages can be installed using the standard package manager apt or using snapd, which are included in the distribution by default.

Two assemblies are available for download, based on Ubuntu 16.04 LTS and 18.04 LTS. You can download them on the official website.